What are the factors that lead to infertility in men, we can divide it into three main groups.
- Impaired sperm production
- Problems in the ducts that carry sperm out of the testicles Sperm Production Disorders
- Low sperm count, low motility and deformity in sperm make it difficult to achieve pregnancy naturally. It can even make it impossible sometimes. There are many factors that affect sperm production and maturation.
Abnormal developments in the veins of the testicle are called varicocele. Varicocele can cause an increase in temperature, disrupting sperm production and motility.
Mumps in adolescence or adulthood can also cause orchitis in the testicles. This can disrupt sperm production.
At birth in a male child, the testicles should have descended into place through the canal. If the testicles do not descend into the scrota until the age of 1 year after birth, they should be lowered into place by surgery. Otherwise, since the testicles remaining in their abdomen and testicular canal will be exposed to heat, sperm production may be irreversibly impaired and this situation also prepares the ground for testicular cancer.
Medications and radiation therapies used to treat cancer can disrupt sperm production by causing damage to sperm host cells in the testicle. This situation should be explained to the patient before the treatment and it should be recommended that the sperms be frozen and stored.
Medication and Habits
Conditions that disrupt the production and balance of male hormones by affecting the brain stem, liver and kidney diseases, febrile diseases, drugs that affect hormone production, alcohol, smoking and drug use, being in very hot environments, exposure to chemicals and radiation can disrupt sperm production.
A man who has no sperm in his semen or fewer than 5 million sperm may have a genetic disorder. In this case, chromosome determination and microdeletion screening on the Y chromosome are appropriate. These disorders will be genetically transmitted to the male child through the Y chromosome and the male child may face the same problem in the future. In such cases, PGT practices can help.
Disorders of Sperm Channels
Obstructions that prevent sperm from coming out of the testicles, which are the place of production, can be the cause of infertility. These ducts may not have developed from birth or may be blocked later due to previous infection and surgical operations. Nervous system diseases, diabetes, prostate, urinary bladder and canal operations can cause infertility by causing semen to escape back to the bladder and not to be expelled.