What are the causes that lead to infertility in women? The leading causes of infertility in women can be listed as egg disorders, deformation or obstruction in the fallopian tubes, endometriosis, cervical problems, egg reserves, uterus or ovarian surgeries.
In order for pregnancy to occur, the woman’s egg must first be expelled from the ovaries and ovulate. Under normal circumstances, the female ovulates once a month. However, this ovulation is infrequently, irregularly intermittent or absent, which is expressed as ovulation disorder. The most important symptom for a woman to suspect of ovulation disorder is the irregularity of menstrual bleeding. Although not very often, ovulation disorders can sometimes be seen in women who menstruate regularly every month.
In order for ovulation to occur in women, female hormones secreted from the pituitary gland in the brain must be secreted at regular intervals and in sufficient amounts. If this hormone is not secreted from birth, the woman will not have any menstrual bleeding during her life. But if hormones are secreted irregularly, both menstrual bleeding and ovulation will be irregular. However, if the milk hormone called prolactin is secreted more than normal, ovulation disorders are experienced until the prolactin level is reduced to normal with surgical methods and medications.
In addition, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, which is the formation of many cysts in the ovaries due to any disorder, also leads to ovulation disorders. Very infrequent and irregular menstrual bleeding from normal, male pattern hair growth and hair loss on the skin, excessive acne are also symptoms of ovulation disorder caused by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Deformation or obstruction of the fallopian tubes leads to infertility.
In order for pregnancy to occur, first of all, the sperm and the egg must come together and produce fertilization. If the woman’s tubes are somewhat blocked or completely closed, it becomes very difficult or impossible to achieve pregnancy by natural means.
Tuberculosis germs taken into the body in childhood, sexually transmitted infections and microbes, intra-abdominal adhesions caused by surgical operations, intrauterine tissue manifesting itself in another area of the body can damage the tubes. In such cases, which adversely affect the functionality of the tubes, it is unlikely that the woman will become pregnant naturally.
Endometriosis is one of the causes of female infertility.
When pregnancy occurs covering the uterus, the formation of the tissue that provides the attachment of the embryo and if there is no pregnancy, the tissue shed by menstrual bleeding in another area outside the uterus is called Endometriosis.
When abnormal intrauterine tissue is formed on the surface, ligaments, tubes and ovaries of the uterus, this tissue bleeds every month during the menstrual period and since this blood cannot be expelled from the body, it causes adhesion and inflammation in the surrounding areas.
Also, when Endometriosis occurs to the ovaries, chocolate cysts called Endometriomas are formed.
Women should suspect Endometriosis if they feel severe pain and soreness during and after sexual intercourse, before and during menstruation, if menstrual bleeding is irregular and if they cannot conceive naturally. 80% of people with endometriosis suffer from infertility.
Cervical problems can lead to female infertility.
Congenital or acquired structural disorders in the cervix, polyps or myomas formed in this area and surgical operations performed in their treatment are among the causes of infertility in women.
However, disorders in the secretion formed in the cervix due to the effect of hormones, abnormal features make it difficult to transfer sperm through the genital tract. In addition, infections that occur in the cervix for any reason can lead to infertility in women.
Low egg reserve.
Every woman is born with a certain number of egg capacity. However, advancing age, medications taken, surgical operations performed in the treatment of various disorders reduce the woman’s egg reserve. As the egg reserve decreases, the probability of obtaining pregnancy naturally also decreases.
Uterine or ovarian surgeries can lead to infertility in women.
While benign formations such as myoma or polyps in the uterus are removed by surgical operation, adhesions may occur in this area and adhesions may prevent pregnancy.
In addition, the removal of an ovary due to problems in the ovaries also irregularizes the hormone levels here and the possibility of obtaining pregnancy naturally decreases. If both ovaries are removed due to any discomfort, pregnancy becomes impossible.
Advanced age factor in women.
The most important factor in women’s ability to become pregnant is that their reproductive functions are working at full capacity. In this context, the age of the woman is an important factor. Because a 20-year-old healthy woman has a natural chance of conceiving within a year, while the probability of a healthy woman over the age of 35 to become pregnant in the same period of time is about 50%. Because as the age advances, the reproductive functions, capacity and adequacy of the woman decrease rapidly.
Inflammation or congenital adhesions, tumors that develop into the uterus called myomas, congenital heart-shaped uteruses, having a double uterus, deformities in the uterus, infections and low mucus quality, polyps developing in the cervix (cervix) or uterus, irregular life, smoking, alcohol use, weight, stress are among the factors that lead to infertility.